Environment
On June 6, 2018, the Center for Limnology reported that a toxic algae bloom had begun to spread across Lake Mendota. It quickly led to the closure of beaches around Madison's largest lake.

It also coincided with the launch of a new, four-year effort by Dane County, called Suck the Muck, designed to literally suck a century's-worth of phosphorus from 33-miles of streams that feed the county's lakes.

Phosphorus, a nutrient found in the manure applied to agricultural fields, makes its way to Wisconsin waters (and waterways elsewhere) in runoff following rain storms. When the weather is warm, it can lead to the foul-smelling water and toxic algae blooms that plague lakes like Mendota, which is situated in an agricultural landscape.

This runoff may be getting worse, according to a recent study from researchers with the Water Sustainability and Climate Project at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. With a changing climate, the frequency of high-intensity rain events is on the rise. These storms bring heavy rains over a short period of time and exacerbate phosphorus runoff from manure-covered agricultural fields, more so than scientists expected.

"Both things are bad for water quality – too much manure is bad and too many intense storms are bad, too," says lead author of the study in Environmental Research Letters, Melissa Motew. "This is a story about how one problem really compounds another problem."

Indeed, the Lake Mendota algal bloom came on the heels of the second-wettest May in Madison's recorded history, and its eighth warmest. The National Weather Service reported that May 2018 was the wettest on record for the contiguous United States.

But Motew didn't start out asking how heavy storms and manure interact synergistically to affect water quality. It was while studying legacy phosphorus in soils ­– the accumulation of the nutrient over time – that she and the research team noticed something interesting in the data.

"We knew that heavy rain transports a lot of phosphorus off of a field and in 2014, (co-author Stephen Carpenter, emeritus professor and director of CFL) found that a relatively small number of rain events each year were delivering the majority of phosphorus to the lakes," she explains. "We happened to notice that it seemed like when we had periods of heavy rainfall we were seeing worse water quality than we expected. It prompted us to set up this study."

Climate change is bringing more intense rainfall across the U.S., particularly in the Midwest and Northeast. The 2014 study from Carpenter and colleagues showed that 74 percent of the phosphorus load in Lake Mendota is now delivered across just 29 days each year, and a 2016 study from scientists at Marylhurst University in Oregon and UW–Madison showed that annual precipitation in the Yahara watershed, which includes Lake Mendota, increased by 2.1 mm each year between 1930 and 2010.

This amounts to an increase of about seven inches of additional rain today, Motew explains. That same study also showed that while the frequency of large storm events in the region averaged 9.5 events per decade between 1930 and 1990, between 1991 and 2010, the number of large storm events nearly doubled, reaching 18 events per decade.

Using simulation models, Motew and the study team asked how more extreme rain events might interact with manure-and-fertilizer phosphorus supply on croplands to affect runoff at the level of an individual lake and the streams that feed it. That is, what happens when a given amount of rain falls on a field over the course of two hours instead of 24 hours?

"The model lets us scale up and make interesting observations from the scale of one field to the entire watershed," she says. "Models let us home in and study the process of how phosphorus moves in great detail."

Using two 60-year climate scenarios, one which assumed daily precipitation, maximum and minimum temperatures, wind speeds, relative humidity and solar radiation similar to current mean annual values in Madison, and another assuming more extreme rain events, Motew's model explored what happens to phosphorus concentrations in Lake Mendota and its tributary streams under low- and high-intensity precipitation conditions.

It took into account the real-life practices of farmers in the watershed – including their typical fertilizer and manure applications and tillage practices, the amount of phosphorus already stored in the surface layers of the soil, and the composition of the land around Lake Mendota. More than half of the land surrounding it is agricultural.

Motew found that dissolved phosphorus – the kind found in manure, as compared to other fertilizers and that found in soil – combined synergistically with heavy rain events to increase the amount of phosphorus running off into Lake Mendota and its streams.

"This puts us at even greater risk of worsening water quality," says Christopher Kucharik, study co-author and Motew's former graduate advisor. "This result also has wide-reaching implications because the synergistic relationship will likely be present in many agricultural watersheds around the world, where livestock and surface water co-exist."

Phosphorus is a critical nutrient for living organisms like crops. But what it does on land, it also does in water: encourages growth of organisms like plants and algae. When they die, these organisms fall to the bottom of an affected waterway, decomposing and consuming oxygen. This kills wildlife and encourages the growth of cyanobacteria, the organism behind toxic algae blooms. In some parts of the country, it can lead to dead zones, like in the Gulf of Mexico.

Farmers in Dane County and elsewhere are already applying less manure and doing so more precisely, Motew says, and she is hopeful these strategies will help to reduce phosphorus runoff from their croplands.

Motew, who is now a research fellow at The Nature Conservancy, also thinks farmers should be a part of continuing efforts to improve water quality. "We need to partner more with farmers so we can not only improve our own research by using better data, but so we can work together and build on their ideas, too." she says. "They know the problems up-close-and-personal and can provide insights we haven't considered. We as scientists can help explore where those insights may lead."

Motew adds: "Farmers are key to solving the problem, even though they are frequently blamed. We all need to take responsibility for our food system and find ways to support farmers in better manure management."

The study was supported by the National Science Foundation (grant numbers DEB-1038759 and DEB-1440297).
Published in Other
Last June, the Central Valley Water Quality Control Board (RB5) adopted a General Order for Confined Bovine Feeding Operations (R5- 2017-0058). Heifer operations and feedyards that supplement feed (confine animals) more than 45 days a year are covered by this Order and include: Calf ranches, dairy heifer operations, stockyards, finishing yards, auction yards, veal calf facilities, and corrals or other confinement areas used to finish cattle for slaughter at grazing operations.

What is not covered: Corrals that are an integral part of a grazing or pasture operation.

This order covers limited time operations (auction yards), smaller facilities (with less than 100 animal units), and all other facilities. Although there are reduced monitoring and reporting requirements for the auction yards and smaller facilities, all facilities need to submit a Notice of Intent.

RB5 staff identify more than 800 facilities will be covered under this Order. | READ MORE 
Published in News
What if odor from swine confinement barns could be reduced by 65 percent or more?

It's possible with trees and technology, according to Iowa Select Farms, which is incorporating evergreens and innovative electrostatic fencing at its new 4,800-head Hale Finisher Farm near Williams.

The odor associated with pork production is often transported on dust particles from hog barns. Planting trees and shrubs planted around hog facilities helps reduce odor, improve site aesthetics and helps control snow deposition. Iowa State University research shows that trees can help reduce swine barn odors by 10 to 15 percent. | READ MORE
Published in Swine
Columbus, Ohio – It may not be a popular solution, but a recent study from The Ohio State University shows the least costly way to cut nearly half the phosphorus seeping into Lake Erie is taxing farmers on phosphorous purchases or paying farmers to avoid applying it to their fields.

Doctoral student Shaohui Tang and Brent Sohngen, a professor of agricultural economics, conducted the study in the College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences (CFAES).

At a projected price tag of up to $20 million annually, a phosphorus subsidy to Ohio farmers or a phosphorus tax would be far cheaper than many of the proposed measures being recommended to reduce phosphorus in Lake Erie, Sohngen said. These proposals are estimated to cost anywhere from $40 million per year to $290 million per year, in addition to the $32 million spent on current conservation practices.

Phosphorus spurs the growth of harmful algal blooms, which poisoned Toledo's drinking water in 2014 and impact the lake's recreation, tourism and real-estate values.

A tax on phosphorus would be an added expense for farmers and "not many people want to talk about it," Sohngen said. "From an economics standpoint, it is the cheapest option."

The money generated from a tax on phosphorus, which would be paid by farmers, could be partially returned to farmers for using conservation measures on their land. It could also compensate others affected by the water quality issue including Toledo and lake area residents to pay for improved water treatment and fishing charter businesses that lose income when algal blooms are severe.

Sohngen presented the estimated costs associated with different methods of cutting phosphorus sources to Lake Erie during a recent conference hosted the Department of Agricultural, Environmental, and Development Economics within CFAES.

Each of the options Sohngen presented is aimed at cutting the phosphorus runoff entering Lake Erie by 40 percent within 10 years, a goal the state has been aiming for but has not yet reached.

"If we want to achieve a 40 percent reduction, it's going to be more expensive than most people imagine," Sohngen said.

Costlier options than the phosphorus tax and subsidy include reducing phosphorus application on fields by 50 percent statewide and incorporating any phosphorus into the soil so it does not remain on the surface. The price tag on that option is $43.7 million for the machinery needed to incorporate phosphorus and the incentive paid to farmers for not using phosphorus, Sohngen said.

Requiring subsurface placement of phosphorus on only half the region's farmland acres would cost $49.9 million, he said.

All figures were generated by a mathematical model created by Tang, working under the direction of Sohngen.

In recent years, high levels of phosphorus, a nutrient in fertilizer, manure and sewage, have led to harmful algal blooms in Lake Erie as well as in Ohio's inland lakes including Grand Lake St. Marys.

Some measures that have been tried in the state have had little impact on reducing the phosphorus load into Lake Erie, Sohngen said. They include planting cover crops on fields during winter and refraining from tilling the land to prevent erosion.

"We're at the point of a phase shift, of having more information to give us better focus on where we need to turn our attention," said Gail Hesse, director of water programs for the National Wildlife Federation's Great Lakes Regional Center.

Hesse, who was the keynote speaker at the conference where Sohngen presented his findings, noted that agriculture is the predominant source of the phosphorus going into Lake Erie.

Climate change, including the increase in intense rainfalls over short periods, has worsened efforts to keep phosphorus out of Lake Erie because rainfall can increase the chances of phosphorus running off a field with the rainwater, she pointed out.

"We don't have enough practices in place across the landscape," she said. "We still have more to do."
Published in State
Farmers and manure managers in North America have known for years that phosphorus is a huge concern, but solutions for handling this nutrient have not come easy. Hauling manure away to locations where fields aren’t already saturated isn’t always practical or cost-effective.
Published in Dairy
A national manure management emergency was recently averted in the United States with the passage in March of the Fair Agricultural Reporting Method (FARM) Act, thwarting attempts by some environmental groups to categorize farms on the same plane as heavy industry as it relates to potential toxic air emissions.
Published in Air quality
An innovation that could have a huge impact on water quality problems in the United States, a system capable of removing almost all phosphorus from stored livestock manure, was developed by a team of researchers from Penn State and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service.

Excess phosphorus, primarily in runoff from land application of manure, accounts for about 66 percent of impaired conditions of U.S. rivers and has created large areas of eutrophication — dead zones — in the Chesapeake Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, where aquatic life cannot survive.

Nutrient pollution is one of America's most widespread, costly and challenging environmental problems, according to the Environmental Protection Agency.

The system devised by Penn State and USDA scientists — dubbed MAPHEX for MAnure PHosphorus EXtraction — involves a three-stage process, including liquid-solid separation with an auger press and centrifuge; chemical treatment with the addition of iron sulfate; and final filtration with diatomaceous earth. The machine is designed to process manure from manure-storage tanks or pits on dairy farms.

"This technology could be a game-changer if we can modify it to achieve lower operating costs," said lead Penn State researcher Alex Hristov, professor of dairy nutrition in the College of Agricultural Sciences. "The final stage uses diatomaceous earth to filter phosphorous from the fluid and that material is expensive."

Clinton Church, with USDA Agricultural Research Service's Pasture Systems and Watershed Management Research Unit, said the team is currently looking at recycling the diatomaceous earth.

"We are also trying to find a less expensive substitute for the filtration stage of the MAPHEX process, such as replacing the filtration stage with another centrifuge," Church said.

When tested at 150- and 2,700-cow dairies, about 98 percent of the phosphorus was removed from manure slurries, along with 93 percent of the solids.

As currently configured, the MAPHEX system would cost approximately $750 per dairy cow per year for a dairy operation — an unrealistic cost when EPA is not imposing restrictions on phosphorus runoff from farms and no government subsidies exist to pay for such technology.

But in the future, if the government enforces clean water regulations on agriculture and if

MAPHEX can be made more affordable to operate, its potential is enormous, Hristov believes.

"We anticipate that refinement of the process and beneficial uses of the solids removed from the manure — such as for plant bedding, compost and fertilizer — will improve cost-efficacy considerably," he said. "And from a stewardship point of view, some larger farmers who can afford to may want to implement a system like this."

Penn State and USDA, which were granted a joint patent on the system in 2017, are looking to license the technology, probably to a large agricultural or waste-processing company. They are not looking to enter into a business arrangement to produce the system, Hristov and Church noted.

Research on the MAPHEX system was conducted in central Pennsylvania, part of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed and an area with an intense focus on developing treatment systems for manure. Manure from the dairy sector was estimated in 2010 to account for 20 percent of all phosphorus in the Chesapeake Bay watershed.

Explaining why Pennsylvania was the perfect place to develop MAPHEX, Hristov pointed out that the majority of dairy farms in the study area are small, with fewer than 100 head of cows milked. But an increasing number of larger operations with more than 1,000 head can now be found.

"The liquid nature of most stored dairy manure reduces its potential for off-farm transport and was the impetus for developing treatment options to manipulate manure solids and nutrients," Hristov said.

MAPHEX was designed to be a mobile system that fits on two large flatbed trailers to service a number of small- or medium-size dairies. If it is scaled up to have the capacity to treat manure from a large dairy, it would no longer be mobile.

"If the system is produced by an ag company, we think manure haulers can make a business out of it, a few small dairies could cooperate and buy one, or big dairies with thousands of cows can build a stationary system."

The MAPHEX is not just for cow manure. Church said the technology is compatible with swine manure and it probably could work with chicken manure, too, but because the latter is dry, it would have to be diluted before the process could work.

Also involved in the research were Tyler Frederick, graduate student in animal science, and David Otto, Mike Reiner and Sarah Fishel, USDA Agricultural Research Service staff at the Pasture Systems and Watershed Management Research Unit.

A Chesapeake Stewardship Grant from the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation and a Research Applications for Innovation grant from the College of Agricultural Sciences in 2017 supported this work.
Published in News
Regina, Sask – Despite their reputation, flatulent cows aren’t capable of destroying the world, an environmental politics professor argues in a forthcoming research paper.

But still, livestock are saddled with an outsized share of the blame for climate change. And if that misunderstanding persists, and pushes policymakers to force a societal shift from meat-eating, it could lead to disaster, says Ryan Katz-Rosene at the University of Ottawa’s school of political studies. READ MORE



Published in Air quality
Ames, IA ― As June approaches, some northern areas of Iowa have experienced delays in corn planting due to a cold spring that turned wet. Producers considering changes to crop rotation should pay attention to the impact it has on manure management plans.

The Iowa Administrative Code only allows a maximum of 100 pounds N per acre manure application on ground to be planted to soybean. However, it does allow fields that had liquid manure applied at rates intended for growing corn to be switched to soybean on or after June 1 with no penalty of over-application of manure nitrogen. Thus if a field planned for corn has not been planted and will be switched to soybean, this can be done. Producers should document the changes in crop rotation, application methods and other changes in their annual manure management plans.

Given it has been a wet spring in some areas, nutrient management and specifically, nitrogen loss may be top of mind. Livestock producers with Iowa Department of Natural Resources [DNR] manure management plans are reminded if they have already applied the maximum nitrogen rate to the field, they can’t apply additional sources of nitrogen unless the need is confirmed by the use of a Late Spring Nitrate Test. This test measures nitrate-N concentration at the 0 to 12-inch depth.

Results can be interpreted by the ISU Extension and Outreach publication “Use of the Late-Spring Soil Nitrate Test in Iowa Corn Production” (CROP 3140), which considers both the original fertilizer source and the amount of rain that occurred in May (excessive is more than five inches in May). When adding extra nitrogen, be sure to document soil sample results and reference the publication to interpret the test results in management plans.

While fall provided favorable application conditions, and periods in March were favorable, producers should plan ahead if not as much manure as normal is applied in the spring. Having a plan in place will help prevent potential issues from turning into problems. Keep an eye on storage, and have a plan for needed action.
Published in State
Smithfield Foods, Inc. and Anuvia Plant Nutrients are pleased to announce a new partnership to create sustainable fertilizer from renewable biological materials collected from manure treatment systems at Smithfield's hog farms.

This project is part of Smithfield Renewables, the company's new platform dedicated to unifying and accelerating its carbon reduction and renewable energy efforts.

The project reuses organic matter found in hog manure to create a commercial-grade fertilizer that is higher in nutrient concentration than the original organic materials.

Farmers are able to better manage nutrient ratios while using less fertilizer by applying precisely what they need for optimal plant growth.

Because Anuvia's products contain organic matter, nutrient release is more controlled, resulting in reduced greenhouse gas emissions and a smaller environmental footprint.

Anuvia will utilize remnant solids from Smithfield that accumulate over time at the bottom of the anaerobic lagoons, basins designed and certified to treat and store the manure on hog farms.

Anuvia, which specializes in the transformation of organic materials into enhanced efficiency fertilizer products, will manufacture and sell these commercial-grade fertilizer products to farmers nationwide.

"Through Smithfield Renewables, we are aggressively pursuing opportunities to reduce our
environmental footprint while creating value," said Kraig Westerbeek, senior director of Smithfield Renewables. "Along with projects that transform biogas into renewable natural gas, this is another example of how we are tackling this goal on our hog farms."

"This is the beginning of a partnership based on a shared vision that will positively impact livestock and crop production," says Amy Yoder, Anuvia Plant Nutrients CEO. "Our proprietary manufacturing process which converts organic waste into novel bio-based plant nutrients is both environmentally friendly and sustainable. Our products reduce leaching and put organic matter back in the soil. Our process is a prototype for a circular economy as we reclaim organic waste, convert and reuse on cropland. This relationship provides a new sustainable way for Smithfield to return its remnant solids back to the land for use on the crops grown to feed the hogs. The impact of this is extremely significant for hog production and the livestock industry. We look forward to helping achieve both Smithfield's and Anuvia's environmental goals."

Company-owned and contract hog farms in North Carolina will participate in this project.

Smithfield will collect and begin the process by de-watering the waste solids before providing the remnants to Anuvia. Once acquired, Anuvia will pick-up and transport the material to their processing plant to create the fertilizer.
Published in News
You might wonder what dry weather and feedlot runoff would have in common. On the one hand, a spell of dry weather can cause expanding areas of moderate drought and dry soils. But dry conditions also make for an excellent time to maintain your feedlot runoff control system.
Published in Beef
The Iowa Pork Producers Association is again partnering with the Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship to offer funding for pig farmers interested in new nutrient loss reduction technologies.

IPPA has provided $25,000 to IDALS to be used for various projects over the next year.

The funds will help offset up to 50 percent of the costs for pig farmers to install saturated buffers or bioreactors on their farmland.

Preference will be given to sites that provide the greatest opportunity for nitrate reduction and be geographically dispersed throughout the state to aid in education and demonstration opportunities. | For the full story, CLICK HERE.
Published in News
Wisconsin - Last spring, University of Wisconsin–Madison researcher Michel Wattiaux began using a specialized device to measure the methane being exhaled or belched by a group of Holsteins and Jerseys.

It was the first step in an ongoing study by dairy scientists, engineers and agronomists to see how a cow's breed and forage consumption affect the greenhouse gases generated by her gut and her manure.

The U.S. dairy industry has set a goal of reducing its greenhouse gas emissions by 25 percent by the year 2020, and UW–Madison researchers are helping identify strategies to accomplish that. | For the full story, CLICK HERE.
Published in News
Ohio - The Ohio Pork Council, Brookside Labs, Menke Consulting Inc., and OSU Extension are teaming up to encourage pork producers to learn more about livestock manure and soil sampling by offering discounts on manure sample analysis and soil sample analysis through the end of 2018.

Soil sample bags and manure containers have been mailed to approximately 18 county Extension offices in central and western Ohio. Sample containers are also available by stopping in at Brookside Labs. For pork producers to participate they need to follow these steps.

Online Survey: All participating pork producers must complete an online survey. If they are unable to complete an online survey they are encouraged to work with their local Soil and Water Office or OSU Extension to complete the survey. The survey is here: http://www.ohiopork.org/soilsample

Unique Identifying Code (UIC): Within 24 hours of completing the survey, participants will receive an email from Remington Road Group containing a soil sample worksheet with a unique identifying code that qualifies them for the discount with Brookside Labs.

Appropriate paperwork will also be available online for the participants to print and complete to attach with their manure and soil samples.

All soil samples must include a swine manure sample to qualify.

Samples and accompanying worksheets will be delivered by the pork producer to Brookside Laboratories in New Bremen (200 White Mountain Drive) M-F between the hours of 8:00 am and 4:00 pm. Appropriate fee will accompany samples when delivered to Brookside (check or credit card). Checks should be made out to "Brookside Laboratories, Inc."

Soil and manure test results will be sent to the producer directly from Brookside to the customer's address. Sample identification on the reports will be a code number that will link the customer to soil tests. Only Brookside Labs will have record of the customer's identification.

The discounted cost of a soil sample analysis will be $3.00/sample. The discounted cost of a manure sample analysis will be $20/sample. By participating, pork producers agree to allow the Ohio Pork Council to utilize the information provided at their discretion in an aggregated format (no personal or individual farm information).

Tom Menke is serving as a point of contact for individuals who need assistance sampling, interpreting results or questions. For the greatest accuracy, manure samples should be collected when manure storages have been properly agitated and the manure is being land applied.

For more information please contact the Ohio Pork Council at 614-882-5887..
Published in News
The Nutrient Management Centre at the Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute (AFBI), Hillsborough, is currently being commissioned with a key goal to explore technologies which offer opportunities for better nutrient management of slurry and digestate.

Screw Press Separation and Centrifugation are the two established technologies currently being investigated for their impact and effectiveness in removing, off farm, large quantities of solids from farm slurries and digestates i.e. feedstock.

Separation of feedstock produces a solids fraction containing a high proportion of phosphorus (P) which is more economical to transport off farm for both agricultural and non-agricultural purposes.

This is especially important for Northern Ireland, since oversupply of P to grassland has increased soil P levels beyond crop requirement optimum, leading to increased risk of P runoff to water courses and a negative impact on water quality. | For the full story, CLICK HERE
Published in News
Chittenango, NY - The dust bowl era in the Midwest displaced many families, including farmers. Edson and Harriet Durfee were one of them. Luckily for New York and Madison County, they and their three children moved back east from Nebraska and settled their dairy farm on 120 acres of river bottom soils and Honeoye hills which fed the appetites of the, then, quiet hamlet of Chittenango.

Going on five generations in the community since then, their dedicated land stewardship, soil conservation and farm management has garnered the coveted 38th annual Conservation Farm of the Year by the Madison County Soil and Water Conservation District. | READ MORE
Published in News
Marshfield, WI - At the Healthy Soil, Healthy Water Conference, held in late-March, Doug Szemborski with Bazooka Farmstar said manure injection could be the best way to use the manure on the farm in a way that makes the neighbors happy while allowing farmers to get the most nutrient value from it.

Farmers who are able to properly use the manure produced on their farms save money in fertilizer costs. Szemborski said injecting the manure into soil allows for reduced runoff and loss of nutrients, while also reducing odor from the manure due to the ammonia that causes the smell being locked into the soil during injection. | READ MORE
Published in Manure Application
Kankakee Sands, IN - A prominent statewide conservation organization has weighed in on a proposed dairy facility in Newton County.

In a press release, The Indiana Audubon Society expressed formal opposition to the proposed Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation (CAFO) on property located next to The Nature Conservancy's Efroymson Restoration at Kankakee Sands.

The proposed CAFO, built by Natural Prairie Dairy, LLC, a Texas owned company, will annually produce more than 26 million gallons of urine, feces and contaminated wastewater, as stated in their permit application with Indiana Department of Environmental Management. | READ MORE
Published in News
A recent report by Island County Public Health showed that surface water in the area tested high in fecal coliform, but the National Park Service worked with the Whidbey Island Conservation District to try and solve the problem.

Source identification testing traced much of the water contamination to agricultural operations being performed on land owned by the National Park Service.

A farmer operating under a permit from the National Park Service has a concentrated animal feedlot on the park service's land. According to a report on the operation, "years of system neglect and poor maintenance practices by the farms" and "benign neglect by NPS officials" led to a partial failure of the farm's existing manure containment system. | For the full story, CLICK HERE.
Published in News
Hammond, WI - The new Western Wisconsin Conservation Council is a nonprofit organization led by local farmers and focused on protecting the region's watersheds and the way of life and commerce they support.

Tom Zwald, who milks 700 cows and runs about 2,000 acres as part of Bomaz Farms near Hammond, said this farmer-led watershed council is unique in that it will not be limited to one watershed but will include all area watersheds, including those for the St. Croix and Kinnickinnic rivers. | READ MORE
Published in News
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